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Life IS history in the making. Every word we say, everything we do becomes history the moment it is said or done. Life void of memories leaves nothing but emptiness. For those who might consider history boring, think again: It is who we are, what we do and why we are here. We are certainly individuals in our thoughts and deeds but we all germinated from seeds planted long, long ago.

Wednesday, November 4, 2015

All in the Name of Science

Search and discovery this evening has led to an additional posting. Items we take for granted today had to get their start somewhere sometime many of which came about all in the name of science. 

Here are a few reported for November 4:

From primitive beginnings of replication to sophistication that surpasses human capabilities lies the evolution of prosthetics.  

Artificial Limb. In 1846, the first U.S. patent for an artificial leg was granted to Benjamin F. Palmer of Meredith, New Hampshire (No. 4,834). The leg had a pliable joint that worked noiselessly preserving its contour in all positions. It presented no openings in the exterior of the legs about the joints and contained tendons of gut and springs arranged for more elasticity, strength, durability and freedom of motion than previously available. Previously in 1837, one was exhibited by Howland & Co of Brookfield, Massachusetts.

Think about the facilitation of meat processing without aid of the meat slicer.

Meat Slicer. In 1873, the first U.S. patent was issued for a meat-slicing machine to Anthony Iske of Lancaster, Pennsylvania (No. 144,206). It used an oblique knife in a vertical sliding frame for slicing dried beef. Certainly a big relief from the tremendous loads of hand slicing!

  Can you imagine life's differences (difficulties) for consumers and industry without the great strides refrigeration has made?

Refrigeration. In 1879, African-American Thomas Elkins of Albany, New York patented a refrigerating apparatus (No. 221,222) designed for chilling or cooling food, or even, according to the patent, human corpses. A porous chilling box enveloped in fabric rests on a grated floor through which a circulation of air aids the evaporation of water supplied from a trough to the fabric. As the water evaporates, latent heat is withdrawn from the chilling box. How cool!
Modern day economic growth has solidified the essentiality of the cash register BUT what has happened to the capability of making change?
The Cash Register. In 1879, James Jacob Ritty (1837-1918) with help from his brother John invented the first cash register, intended to combat stealing by bartenders in the Pony House Restaurant, his Dayton, Ohio saloon. His idea came on a cruise, when he saw a device that counted the revolutions of the ship's propeller. Their first model looked like a clock, but instead of the hands indicating hours and minutes, they indicated dollars and cents. Behind the dial two adding discs accumulated the total of the amounts recorded.


It is difficult for us to imagine the world today without the automobile. With that invention came many, many improvements decade after decade.

Air-conditioning. In 1939, the first air-conditioned automobile was exhibited by its manufacturer, Packard Motor Co. of Detroit, Michigan. The public exhibition at the 40th Automobile Show in Chicago, Illinois ran between 4-12 Nov. Air in the car was cooled, dehumidified, filtered and circulated. The refrigerating coils were located behind the rear seat in an air duct. The capacity of the unit was equivalent to 1.5 tons of ice in 24 hours when the car was driven at 60 mph.

Behind every invention is an inventor whose innovative mind never sleeps because...